Vaccines are preparations microorganisms introduced into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease by causing the formation of antibodies.
Vaccines are very delicate compounds, which if handled or administered incorrectly will be ineffective or neutralized.
Vaccines are administered initially as a two-shot series and then annually or semiannually.
The vaccines and vaccine protocols listed below are tailored to our practice and geographic location and follow the guidelines of the AAEP.
Eastern & Western Encephalomyelitis: Encephalomyelitis is caused by a virus, which is transmitted by mosquitos. The virus causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. The vaccine is very effective against the disease.
Tetanus Toxoid: Tetanus is a disease caused by a specific toxin of a bacillus (Clostridium tetani)which usually enters the body through wounds. It is characterized by spasmodic contractions and rigidity of some or all of the voluntary muscles (especially of the jaw, face and neck). The bacteria is found in horse manure. The vaccine is very effective and administered once yearly. The vaccine is boostered in case of laceration, surgery, or pentrating wounds.
West Nile Virus: West Nile virus is transmitted by mosquitos. The virus causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Because Long Island has a long mosquito season and the vaccine protection lasts 6-7 months, we recommend semiannual vaccination. Horses that travel to Florida should be boostered 2 weeks before travelling. Veterinarians in problem areas vaccinate 2-4 x per year.
Rhinopneumonitis: Rhinopneumonitis is a herpes virus which causes respiratory infections, abortions, and inflammation of the spinal cord. The vaccine is not 100% effective and the protection only lasts 10-12 weeks. Pregnant mares should be vaccinated at 3.5, 7 and 9 months from the breeding date. Horses that are travelling to shows, races, sales, etc. should be vaccinated every 3 months. Pleasure horses that do not travel should be vaccinated twice a year. The vaccine does not protect against the neurologic form of the disease.
Influenza:Influenza is a virus that causes high fever and respiratory infection. The vaccine is not 100% effective, and the protection lasts only 10-12 weeks. Horses travelling to shows, sales, racing events, etc..should be vaccinated every 3 months. Horses that do not travel should be vaccinated at least twice a year.
Strangles:Strangles is a bacterial disease caused by Streptococcus equi. It is highly contagious and causes the following signs: high fever, abscessed lymph nodes,and respiratory infection. Horses may develop guttural pouch infections, sinus infections, purpura hemorrhagica, laryngeal paralysis, and bastard strangles. There is an intranasal vaccine which is more effective than the intramuscular vaccine. The vaccine is given once a year except in endemic barns( that have frequent outbreaks) where semiannual vaccination is recommended.
ADULT PLEASURE HORSES
ADULT SHOW/TRAVELLING HORSES
Annually- Eastern/Western/Venezuelan/Tetanus*, Strangles, Rabies & Potomac Horse Fever
Biannually- Flu IN (intranasal) & WNV (spring/mid-summer)
*consider E/W/V/T biannually if traveling to year-round mosquito areas
5,7, & 9 mo. of pregnancy- Rhino (Prodigy or Pneumabort K)
10 mo. of pregnancy- Eastern/ Western/ Tetanus & Flu In and WNV
*consider Strangles on endemic premises
FOALS FROM UNVACCINATION MARES
2 months- EWT, Rhino/ Flu & Strangles & WNV
3 months- WNV
6 months- EWT, Rhino/ Flu & Strangles & WNV
12 months- EWT. Rhino/ Flus
FOALS FROM VACCINATED MARES
**Horses with puncture wounds or undergoing castration should be boostered for Tetanus